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January 06, 2005

利用 mkisofs 製作 sparc-boot 開機光碟

公司最近有個特殊需求,要求要在 mips 的平台上支援 cdrom 開機這牽扯到需要 bootloader 支援 cdrom , 也需要一些額外特殊手法來作這樣個事情。

我們知道可以利用 mkisofs 來製作 ISO file. 在可開機光碟上有幾種作法。

-G generic_boot_image

         Specifies the path and filename of the generic boot image to be used when making a generic bootable CD. The generic_boot_image will be placed on the first 16 sectors of the CD. The first 16 sectors are the sectors that are located before the iso9660 primary volume descriptor. If this option is used together with the -sparc-boot option, the Sun disk label will overlay the first 512 bytes of the generic boot image.

-b eltorito_boot_image

         Specifies the path and filename of the boot image to be used when making an "El Torito" bootable CD. The pathname must be relative to the source path specified to mkisofs. This option is required to make an "El Torito" bootable CD. The boot image must be exactly the size of either a 1200, 1440, or a 2880 kB floppy, and mkisofs will use this size when creating the output iso9660 filesystem. It is assumed that the first 512 byte sector should be read from the boot image (it is essentially emulating a normal floppy drive). This will work, for example, if the boot image is a LILO based boot floppy.

-G 是將開機檔案寫在前 16 軌內,這容量是有限制的。而 -b 則是在 iso9660 檔案格式內含開機檔案存放開機程式位置資訊。不過很特別的是裏面註明只能使用 1200, 1440, 2880kb floppy. 未查原因不明。

最近有一種新興的開機光碟使用的是 isolinux.bin , 用的也是 -b 底下是幾種作法的簡圖

[I. -G]
bios -> cdrom -> bootimg booting.
[II. -b]
bios -> cdrom -> iso9660 fs -> bootimg booting
bios -> cdrom -> iso9660 fs -> isolinux.bin -> linux kernel booting.

-b 限制 1200,1400,2880 大小(未查), 所以利用一個 isolinux.bin 在來載 linux kernel , 作法有點像是 syslinux 或是 dos 下的 loadlin 。當然 isolinux.bin 要支援 iso9660 file sytem.

我們的系統 image 通常大約 4M or 8M or 16M 不等。看來 image 大小是個問題。要不要採用 isolinux.bin on mips cpu 也是個問題?似乎好像沒這個必要。

footnote: 我後來又查了一下,isolinux for x86 only.

最後我採用的是 sparc-boot 的方式。這個方式很有趣。提供給大家參考。

-sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       Specifies a comma separated list of boot images that are needed to make a bootable CD for sparc systems. Partition 0 is used for the ISO-9660 image, the first image file is mapped to partition 1. There may be empty fields in the comma separated list. The maximum number of possible partitions is 8 so it is impossible to specify more than 7 partition images. This option is required to make a bootable CD for Sun sparc systems. If the -B or -sparc-boot option has been specified, the first sector of the resulting image will contain a Sun disk label. This disk label specifies slice 0 for the iso9660 image and slice 1 ... slice 7 for the boot images that have been specified with this option. Byte offset 512 ... 8191 within each of the additional boot images must contain a primary boot that works for the appropriate sparc architecture. The rest of each of the images usually contains an ufs filesystem that is used primary kernel boot stage.

簡譯: 共有 8 個 partition, partition 0 放 ISO-9660, 1-7 可以放 7 個不同的開機 image.

# fdisk -l /dev/sr0
Note: sector size is 2048 (not 512)

Disk /dev/sr0 (Sun disk label): 1 heads, 640 sectors, 2048 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 640 * 512 bytes

   Device Flag    Start       End    Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sr0p1   r         0        73     23360    4  SunOS usr
/dev/sr0p2   r        73        99      8320    2  SunOS root

# mount -t iso9660 -o ro /dev/sr0 /mnt/
# mount
/dev/sr0 on /mnt type iso9660 (ro)

由於 boot image 是利用獨立的 partition 所以檔案大小就沒有特別的限制。而且不需要理解 iso-9660 file system 的能力。因為他並不存放在 iso9660 上面,要找 boot image 直接在 512 byte 的 fstab 上面找十分簡單。

底下是 sun_label 的資料結構
struct sun_label {
     char            dkl_ascilabel[128];
        struct dk_map {                 /* logical partitions */
                Uchar   dkl_cylno[4];   /* starting cylinder */
                Uchar   dkl_nblk[4];    /* number of blocks */
        }               dkl_map[NDKMAP]; /* logical partition headers */
        Uchar           dkl_magic[2]; /* identifies this label format */
        Uchar           dkl_cksum[2]; /* xor checksum of sector */
# ./read_kernel /dev/sr0
CD-ROM Disc with Sun sparc boot created by mkisofs
 kcylno = 73
 seek = 23920640
 knblk = 8320
 KR size = 8519680

# ls -l KR
-rw-------  1 root root 8519680 Jan  6 14:37 KR


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